European cities have been leading the way on smart city development for over a decade. Cities are pioneers in testing and implementing innovative, sustainable and integrated solutions to become greener, more efficient, and better places. Working at an EU and on local projects and initiatives, city governments have fostered territorial and multi-level collaboration and increasingly developed a broader smart city vision.
Digital transformation – the change associated with the application of digital technology in all aspects of human society – is also part of this vision. Cities are increasingly combining the power of data technology and the power of people, creating numerous opportunities, but also posing new challenges as citizens and public authorities are increasingly concerned by privacy, security and accountability issues.